Choose your country and language:

Africa

  • Global
  • Angola
  • Botswana
  • DRC
  • Ethiopia
  • Ghana
  • Kenya
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Namibia
  • Nigeria
  • South Africa
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

Americas

  • USA
  • Argentina
  • Brazil

Asia Pacific

  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • South Korea
  • Australia

Europe

  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Netherlands
  • United Kingdom
Back
South Africa

You are only moments away

Culture
History
Attractions
Cape Town
Johannesburg
Durban
Bloemfontein
Kimberley
Polokwane
Port Elizabeth
Pretoria
Nelspruit

TThe Ndebele of South Africa constitutes one group of people whose identity has survived precarious conditions and existential crisis under the weight of changing power dynamics of internal and external factors from pre-colonial to present times. Culture constituted one of Ndebele identity’s defining elements as it emerged and was expressed as a continuous formulation, sifting through the grids of historical forces, both internal and external, across space and time.

Beadwork, wall paintings, architecture and distinctive ways of dressing are more tangible ways of Ndebele identity and culture through which they have maintained a consciousness of belonging in the midst of precarious existence that confronted them since the late 19th century.

BBeadwork and wall paintings in Ndebele communities have evolved over time and have a long history that can be traced back to the 1940s. Art production as an expression of Ndebele identity and the attachment to this form of material culture were largely shaped by the defeat by the Boers in 1883 and the resulting loss of independence and sovereignty, decentralisation and dispersing of the tribe, dispersal patterns after loss of land, and scattering of their polities.

After the defeat, beaded adornment and architectural designs were maintained as a prominent visual form of material culture to deliberately claim a consciousness of Ndebele identity. In other words, paintings in particular became an expression of cultural resistance and continuity. Everyday intricacies of what constituted Ndebele-ness and their values were communicated through these wall paintings. For example, women’s roles at home or in the domestic arena were aesthetically reflected through wall paintings. These paintings also cast women as nurturers of Ndebele cultural identity.

DDifferent kinds of beaded adornment convey messages of social meanings such as age sets and stages of growth from childhood to adulthood. For example, blankets commonly worn by Southern Ndebele women have different beads distinguishing newly married women from older women. Beadwork has a communicative power especially to the insider who can distinguish different types of beaded adornments and associate them with the respective age set. Additionally, beaded adornments serve a cultural purpose in ceremonial traditions, like girls and boys’ initiations where the initiates and their parents wear beaded garments, which symbolically communicate the value attached to initiation.

 

AAspects of Ndebele art designs have been appropriated by the post-1994 government as part of crafting a national identity as expressed in paintings in streets, billboards and tourist vouchers. This has preserved Ndebele cultural practice in many ways and Esther Mahlangu, one of Ndebele culture's icons, uses the colours of the South African flag in some of her paintings.

Mahlangu has a sustained interest in expressing, preserving and nurturing Ndebele cultural identity by producing beadwork and wall paintings that have earned her an iconic status of representation of Ndebele culture in South Africa and beyond. The visibility of Ndebele art forms in public spaces reflects the mutually constitutive ways of the appropriation of Ndebele culture as part of the South African traditional arts.

AAbout the author

Sifiso Ndlovu is a post-doctoral research fellow at the Public Affairs Research Institute (PARI) at the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Her PhD project broadly examined intersections and divergences in the articulations of belonging to ethnic identity and nation-building in post-apartheid South Africa in the culturally heterogeneous KwaMhlanga region. She also holds an MA in Political Studies from the University of the Witwatersrand. She is a budding academic who has received academic awards and scholarships, including the Next Generation Social Sciences in Africa Doctoral Fellowship, University of the Witwatersrand’s Council Postgraduate Merit Scholarship, National Research Foundation bursary, and University of the Witwatersrand’s Postgraduate Merit Award Doctoral Scholarship.

To visit

Related articles

Vibrant culture

Xhosa culture: the clans and customs

Vibrant culture
Xhosa culture: the clans and customs

The AmaXhosa are part of three nations known as Nguni that are found in South Africa. The other two are AmaSwazi and AmaZulu.  The AmaXhosa settled in the Eastern Cape and over time spread to the Western Cape.

Vibrant culture

Cape Malay cuisine: food that feeds the soul

Vibrant culture
Cape Malay cuisine: food that feeds the soul

A food group born from the souls of slaves, in its heart, one motto: make sure our people are fed.

Vibrant culture

The Bakgatla-ba-Kgafela of the Pilanesberg

Vibrant culture
The Bakgatla-ba-Kgafela of the Pilanesberg

In the north-eastern corner of the Pilanesberg, where the Big Five roam the plains and platinum sits in abundance under the soil, you’ll find the ancestral home of the Bakgatla-ba-Kgafela people.

Vibrant culture

Bapedi history, traditions, culture and food

Vibrant culture
Bapedi history, traditions, culture and food

The Bapedi tribe (also known as Pedi and Basotho) arose from small chiefdoms that were formed before the 17th century.

Vibrant culture

Xhosa cuisine: the dishes and traditions

Vibrant culture
Xhosa cuisine: the dishes and traditions

Xhosa cuisine: the dishes and traditions

Vibrant culture

Shaka kaSenzangakhona, the founder of the Zulu kingdom

Vibrant culture
Shaka kaSenzangakhona, the founder of the Zulu kingdom

King Shaka kaSenzangakhona has been portrayed as a blood-thirsty dictator who ruled through coercion and instilled fear in his people. Contrary to these misrepresentations, early colonial accounts portray him as a keen international trader who went out of his way to protect the traders between 1824 and 1828.

Vibrant culture

Venda culture

Vibrant culture
Venda culture

Venda culture and traditions are rooted in the responsibilities of the royal leaders, who are referred to as mahosi or vhamusanda in the Luvenda language, which means chiefs or traditional leaders who are royal leaders.

Vibrant culture

A history of mining in South Africa (1)

Vibrant culture
A history of mining in South Africa (1)

Mining in South Africa has been a contentious issue since 15-year-old Erasmus Stephanus Jacobs discovered South Africa’s first diamond, the Eureka, in Hopetown in 1867.

South Africa on social media

Copyright © 2019 South African Tourism
|Terms and conditions|Disclaimer|Privacy policy