The Eye of Kuruman
Did you know?
Explorer David Livingstone was a frequent visitor to Kuruman, and married the Moffats’ daughter, Mary.
Deep in the desert sands of the Kalahari lies a watery phenomenon – an inexhaustible spring called the Eye of Kuruman.
For over 200 years, the spring has never faltered, even during droughts. Every day 20-million litres of sweet, pure water pours out of the dry earth here into a clear pool of water surrounded by gardens and palm trees.
It is an unexpectedly lush oasis in the middle of an arid area, and is sometimes referred to as the 'Fountain of Christianity'. That’s because the spring made possible an important mission station.
In 1824, Robert and Mary Moffat of the London Missionary Society established a settlement here serving the local Setswana people. Kuruman, incidentally, is named for a local San chief that lived here at the time – Kudumane.
Robert Moffat baptised converts in the Kuruman river, fed by the Eye (called 'Die Oog' in Afrikaans). Moffat taught himself Setswana, then translated the Bible and hand-printed it in 1834 – the first entire Bible to be printed in Africa.
The Moffat church still stands today and you can even see the almond tree under which David Livingstone became engaged to the Moffats' daughter, Mary Moffat.
The geology that made the Eye of Kuruman possible was formed 190-million years ago, at a time of great volcanic instability, when lava (now hardened into dolerite) created intrusions, cracks and cavities deep underground.
The Eye of Kuruman is said to be the largest natural spring in the Southern Hemisphere. Its Setswana name is 'Gasegonyane', which translates roughly to mean ‘little water calabash’.
Today Kuruman is one of the larger towns in the Northern Cape, and its inhabitants rely entirely on this unlikely abundance of water. In the clear pool into which the spring bubbles you’ll see various fish, including an endangered species of indigenous cichlid.
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