The history of the Free State is fraught with cultural clashes, wars, victories, surrenders, peace treaties and conventions. Two of the most significant events that unfolded here and helped shape the history of South Africa were the arrival of the Voortrekkers and the South African War (also known as the Anglo-Boer War).

Did you know?

The South African War, which included the Orange Free State, was one of Britain's longest and most expensive wars.

The history of the Free State is a portrait of turbulence and turmoil. Previously called the Orange Free State, South Africa's Free Sate province is located between the Orange and Vaal rivers and has seen its fair share of bloodshed.

In the 1800s, the notorious Zulu chief Mzilikazi rampaged through the region, all but wiping out the indigenous peoples that inhabited the area.

Then in 1824, the first Dutch, German and French Huguenot farmers arrived from the Cape, followed by the first families of the Great Trek – a mass migration of Dutch-speaking colonists known as the Voortrekkers who left the Cape in search of independence.

These settlers clashed with Mzilikazi, but the infamous Zulu chief was later defeated and fled north. The Dutch, German and French settlers who established themselves as Afrikaners, and many of whom established themselves as farmers, or 'Boers', attempted to establish an independent republican government, but struggles with the invading British armies put paid to this.

The region's troubles were far from over. The Afrikaners clashed further with local indigenous peoples and then took up arms against the British in the South African War. This bloodiest of wars raged unabated for three years, ending on 31 May 1902 with the signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging, which placed the Orange Free State (and South African Republic) under British rule.

In 1910 the Orange Free State became a province within South Africa. It remained so until after the first democratic elections, when it was renamed the Free State.

There are numerous sites scattered around the province that tell the story of these skirmishes, including battle sites, blockhouses, cemeteries and monuments.

The history of the Free State also includes the discovery of gold, after which the province experienced a gold rush and mines sprang up overnight. Entire cities were planned around the rich gold deposits, which are today rated among the best in the world.

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